Fermentation is one of the major techniques involved in downstream processing
The downstream in alcohol fermentation constitutes driers, filters and the distillation columns. This type of fermentation is very simple and effective downstream operation however if we opt for other different chemicals such as specialty chemicals or bulk chemicals and also products associated with pharmaceuticals or drugs then we may have quite harsh necessitation for pureness as a pharmaceutical product has to be enormously clean.
Apart from fermentation, one can also opt for other purification steps like the chromatography and its various useful types. In this, one has to deal with separations such as membranes and so on. This is because of the fact that the product can not only take but also tolerate elevated temperatures which are being used for the sake of distillation.
However, the person involved in this has deal with products like enzymes and proteins which perhaps would not be able to survive in these elevated temperatures
So the person may be unable to make use of distillation. For this purpose, other downstream processing can be used. Thus, on the basis of the type of product which the person is attempting to restore, the nature of the downstream processing differs very much.
Hence, a simple process of sugar fermentation, transforming into alcohol necessitates various downstream processing like driers, filters and distillation columns which we have already discussed above and we will be watching much more like these. Every technique has its own use and its own pros and cons depending on which the most suitable technique is preferred for the sake of recover or purification of the product which is desired. These advantages and disadvantages also help a lot in determining which technique should be preferred in a particular condition and which should be not preferred and the person decides accordingly.