Active pharma ingredient is that component present within the pharmaceutical drug or product which is biologically active and has the desirous effect we want to acquire
Other similar terms used for this are active substance, active ingredient or bulk active etc. This paper is all about components of drug, preparation of API, purpose & combination of APIs.
Every pharmaceutical product contains two things:
- active pharmaceutical ingredient : It causes desirable effects on body.
- Excipient: It is an inert component serving as a vehicle for API, enhancing its bioavailability & stability etc. It is solid in case of capsules and liquid in case of syrups.
APIs can be isolated from natural sources or can be manufactured artificially in the laboratory through varying processes such as:
a) Recombinant DNA technology b) Fermentation c) Chemical Synthesis
However, the APIs manufactured in lab are usually more pure than that isolated from the natural sources.
However, certain APIs cannot be précised and in such cases API is not just a single substance but a combination of substances in the pharmaceutical product or drug to produce the desired effect. And, if these substances are administered individually, they don’t act at optimal efficiency and hence desired effect is acquired. These substances assume to aid each other for bioavailability, tolerance to degradation and affecting solubility etc. Such scenario is mostly present in cases of herbal medicines.
So, from the above discussion, we can conclude that APIs have recently gained enormous attention, because now we don’t have to take other components present in natural sources other than APIs because sometimes by-products are damaging for us & most of the times they decrease the potency and efficiency of the required API production if its used in crude form. So, new methods to manufacture & isolate APIs are being developed & there’s also continuous search to find & isolate new APIs with better efficiency and potency.